Темы для монологического высказывания огэ. Составление монологического высказывания на лингвистическую тему (7 класс). Как это работает

Способны ли ваши ученики воспроизвести монолог на заданную тему на английском языке? Не пересказать прочитанное или услышанное, не рассказать заранее написанное и тщательно вызубренное, а именно поговорить на заданную тему? Довольно часто ответ на этот вопрос - “нет”. Тем не менее навык важный и нужный. Так как же помочь нашим ученикам?

Сегодня рассказываем, как обучать монологическому высказыванию.

Что это такое?

Это форма речи, характеризующаяся развернутостью, автономностью, наличием цели и особым языковым оформлением. Монолог всегда обращен к кому-то, будь то группа людей, один человек или сам говорящий. Кроме того, такая форма высказывания всегда имеет цель, из которой вытекает оформление речи.

Монологическая речь в рамках изучения иностранного языка является важным навыком, который проверяется рядом экзаменов, как государственных, так и международных. Также, умение излагать свои мысли в особой форме делает нас лучшими собеседниками.

Обучение монологическому высказыванию происходит с начальных классов и может быть условно поделенным на несколько этапов.

  1. Первый этап подразумевает под собой выработку языковых автоматизмов, другими словами, обучение языку в целом. На этом этапе монолог довольно условный и является изложением услышанного или прочитанного, повторением готового материала, имитацией готовой речи и т.д. Такой вид монологического высказывания характерен для низких уровней. Продукт на выходе хоть и является условно монологом, более зависим от внешних материалов, всегда заранее подготовлен и отрепетирован.
  2. На втором этапе происходит обучение отбору и использованию языковых средств, подбор необходимого и уместного языкового материала. Данный этап также характеризуется опорой на готовый текст, но уже является реакцией на него. Кроме того, на этом этапе происходит обучение организации высказывания, использованию слов-связок и других средств оформления речи.
  3. Третий этап - это инициативное высказывание, т.е. уже полноценный монолог на тему. К этому моменту учащиеся в достаточной мере владеют языком, знаниями об оформлении и связности речи и способны построить монологическое высказывание на любую тему без необходимости изложения готового текста.

С третьим этапом, как правило, и случаются проблемы. К сожалению, даже взрослые ученики высоких уровней часто не способны воспроизвести монолог достаточной длины. Либо высказывание их может быть развернутым, однако нелогичным, несвязным и т.д.

Что делать?

Проблема в том, что многие не умеют оформлять свой монолог. Часто студенты признаются, что не знают, о чем можно говорить на протяжении, скажем, 1-2 минут и т.д. Сколько бы не было причин, решение часто одно - научить оформлять речь и планировать ее.

В этом поможет старое доброе средство - mind mapping. Мы уже писали о том, как можно применять это для . Тот же принцип можно с успехом использовать в подготовке монолога на тему.

Как это работает?

Для примера возьмем задания из экзамена IELTS - Speaking Part 2, которое представляет собой монологическое высказывание на заданную тему. С этим заданием возникают проблемы у многих неподготовленных к формату экзамена студентов, просто от того, что они не знают, как организовать свои мысли так, чтобы упомянуть все, что есть в задании и уложить это в 2 минуты. На подготовку к такому заданию дается 1 минута. За это время невозможно написать полную речь, однако возможно создать опорный mind map.

Представьте, что ученику предстоит подготовить ответ на следующую тему:

Describe a language other than English that you would like to learn.
You should say:
what the language is
where it is spoken
what you think would be difficult and what would be easy about learning the language
and explain why you would like to learn it.
(taken from https://ieltsmaterial.com/)

Задача учащегося за 1 минуту подготовить монолог на 2 минуты, включив все необходимое из задания, еще и хорошо структурировать и оформить.

Первое, что я рекомендую сделать своим студентам и делаю сама - подчеркнуть ключевые моменты в задании, чтобы не пропустить ничего в своем высказывании. Основной темой высказывания будет язык, который студент хотел бы выучить помимо английского. Это будет сердцевиной mind map. Далее студент должен упомянуть, какой язык, где на нем говорят, что в нем сложного и легкого , и почему он хочет его учить. Эти идеи будут лепестками mind map. Они помогут нам развернуть наше высказывание до необходимого объема.

К каждому из лепестков на mind map можно добавить краткий ответ на вопрос, причины (если это уместно), а также слова-связки, и другую полезную лексику. В итоге mind map к данному заданию может выглядеть так:

Кликните на изображение, чтобы открыть в большем разрешении

С помощью этого mind map можно составить подобный ответ:

I am going to talk about a language I would like to learn apart from English.

I’ve always wanted to learn Spanish . First and foremost, this language is spoken in Spain and is one of the official languages in this country. Moreover, Spanish is an official language in almost all Latin American countries , however it is influenced by their indigenous languages and has a number of local dialects. Finally, Spanish is still used in the former Spanish colonies either like an official language or just a spoken language.

On the one hand, it might seem that Spanish is a difficult language to learn. First of all, it contains a lot of new and unusual words which you have to get used to and memorise. In addition, it contains a vast amount of irregular verbs which change differently and the only way to remember them is just learn them by heart. However, for me personally, the most difficult thing about Spanish is that they all speak so fast which makes it really hard to understand what they are talking about.

On the other hand, Spanish is considered by many people one of the easiest languages to learn . There are many international words in the language as well as words of Latin origin, so it is easier for those whose first language is Roman or who studies Latin at university. Apart from this, Spanish has easy rules of spelling and reading which makes it really quick to acquire both reading and writing in this language, not only speaking and listening. The best part about Spanish, in my opinion, is that the word order is not restricted as in English that is why it is easier to learn for those who have the same word order rules in their languages.

I want to learn the language for at least two reasons . First, it is the second most spoken language in the world by the number of speakers after Mandarin Chinese, so knowing Spanish I can communicate with more people worldwide. Second, it is very beautiful, so if you are in love with Spanish culture as I am, knowing the language is a must. That is why I would learn Spanish if I had a chance.

Саму карту можно делать более или менее подробной, в зависимости от условий. Если это не подготовка к экзамену, а именно обучение монологической речи, времени на подготовку можно выделить больше (5-10 минут). При работе с индивидуальным студентом можно поработать над первыми картами вместе (используйте scaffolding и наводящие вопросы, чтобы помочь ученику, но не давайте готовых идей и ответов).

Чем помогает создание mind map при подготовке монологического высказывания?
→ Структура ответа: можно визуально обозначить основную тему высказывания, а также составляющие высказывания. Нумерация поможет не сбиться в порядке во время устного ответа.
→ Краткие ответы: краткие ответы на ключевые вопросы помогут не сбиться с мысли. От краткого ответа уже проще сформировать детали.
→ Полезные выражения: фиксирование полезных слов-связок для каждого пункта поможет не повторятся и использовать разнообразные средства оформления речи.

На первых порах создание такого рода ментальных карт может занимать много времени. Однако, в процессе обучения это приемлимо. С каждым разом процесс будет проходить быстрее. Оформление мыслей таким образом помогает сделать высказывание развернутым, разнообразным и в случае с IELTS ничего не забыть.

Таким образом можно готовить опору не только для монолога для экзаменов, но и при подготовки ответа на вопросы из учебника, или подготовки речи по теме заданной, например, в формате integrated speaking или discussion questions (примеры взяты из Navigate Advanced C1 Student’s book by Mark Bartram, Kate Pickering, OUP, 2016).

Надеемся, что этот небольшой лайфхак поможет вашим ученикам качественнее оформлять мысли для монологического высказывания.

А что вы думаете о данном приеме? Попробовали бы его со студентами? Какими приемами пользуетесь при обучении монологической речи? Ждем ваших историй и вопросов в комментариях!

Вам необходимо построить связное монологическое высказывание на определённую тему с опорой на план.

Время на подготовку - 1,5 минуты.

Задание 3 всегда сопровождается фотографией близкой по содержанию тексту задания. Эту фотографию НЕ нужно описывать! Она просто служит визуальной опорой для генерирования идей для вашего монологического высказывания. В вашем монологе обязательно должны присутствовать , связанные с темой высказывания. Общий объем высказывания должен составлять 10 - 12 предложений.

Ваша речь должна быть естественной и спонтанной (без заученных наизусть длинных предложений из топиков). Для этого используйте в своем ответе следующие слова и выражения:

  • Well, … — Ну …
  • To tell the truth … — Честно говоря …
  • To be honest … — Если быть честным …
  • You know, … — Знаете …
  • As far as I know, … — Насколько я знаю …
  • As far as I can see, … — Насколько я могу судить …
  • Actually, … — На самом деле …
  • The thing is that … — Дело в том, что …
  • It’s a kind of … — Это что-то вроде …
  • I am sure that … — Я уверен, что …
  • I believe that … — Я полагаю, что …
  • I think that … — Я думаю, что …
  • In my opinion … / To my mind … — По моему мнению …
  • Let me see. — Дайте-ка подумать.
  • I am not quite sure I know the right answer, … — Я не совсем уверен, что знаю правильный ответ …
  • Without any doubt, … — Вне всякого сомнения …
  • It goes without saying that … — Понятно без слов… / Безусловно...
  • Firstly, … — Во-первых, …
  • Secondly, … — Во-вторых, …
  • Thirdly, … — В-третьих, …
  • Besides, … — Кроме того …
  • Moreover, … — Более того …
  • Last but not least, … — Последнее, но не менее важное …
  • I should say / admit that … — Хочу сказать / отметить, что …
  • By the way, … — К стати, …
  • All in all, … — В целом …
  • In conclusion, … — В заключение

Критерии оценивания выполнения задания 3 устной части

Задание 3 (тематическое монологическое высказывание) - максимум 7 баллов.

Оценивается по трем аспектам:

  • Решение коммуникативной задачи (К5)
  • Организация высказывания (К6)
  • Языковое оформление высказывания (К7)

Максимальный балл учащийся получит при условии, если

Решение коммуникативной задачи (3 балла) Задание выполнено полностью: цель общения достигнута; тема раскрыта в полном объёме (полно, точно и развернуто, раскрыты все аспекты, указанные в задании). Объём высказывания: 10-12 фраз.

Организация высказывания (2 балла) Высказывание логично и имеет завершённый характер; имеются вступительная и заключительная фразы , соответствующие теме. Средства логической связи используются правильно.

Языковое оформление высказывания (2 балла) Использованный словарный запас, грамматические структуры, фонетическое оформление высказывания соответствуют поставленной задаче (допускается не более четырёх негрубых лексико-грамматических ошибок И/ИЛИ не более трёх негрубых фонетических ошибок).

На подготовку к заданию 3 отводится всего 1,5 минуты, поэтому это время надо использовать максимально рацио-нально.

Во время подготовки к заданию:

  • внимательно прочитайте текст задания, обращая особое внимание на пункты плана, которые необходимо раскрыть;
  • продумайте, что вы могли бы сказать по каждому пункту плана; не забудьте, что на каждый пункт плана надо сказать не менее 3—4 предложений;
  • заранее продумайте заключение (подведение итога ска-занному в основной части, выражение своего мнения), так как во время ответа вы можете не успеть придумать, как за-кончить свое выступление;
  • используйте средства логической связи для объедине-ния предложений в единый связанный рассказ;
  • обратите внимание на то, какие грамматические струк-туры используются в пунктах задания. Например, если в пункте задания использовано прошедшее время, то и отве-чать надо впрошедшем времени

Во время ответа:

  • начните с общего представления темы (1-2 предложе-ния) и только потом переходите непосредственно к раскры-тию первого пункта задания, для того чтобы ваш рассказ получился логичный и связанный;
  • подробно раскройте содержание всех пунктов задания;
  • дайте развернутую аргументацию, если в пункте задания есть вопрос Why;
  • говорите четко и ясно, не отклоняясь от предложенно-го плана; не давайте избыточную информацию, которая не требуется в задании: она займет время ответа, но учитывать-ся экспертами не будет;
  • следите за временем. Примерное время ответа на каж-дый пункт плана — 35-40 секунд; если вы видите, что про-говорили больше времени, чем нужно, переходите к следу-ющему пункту плана;
  • за 10— 15 секунд до окончания отведенного на ответ вре-мени переходите к заключению. Очень важно, чтобы ваш рассказ носил завершенный характер, а не обрывался на середине фразы. Если вы не успеете сказать заключитель-ную фразу, то потеряете 1 балл по критерию «Организация высказывания».

СЛС-средства логической связи

Функция

введение

I’d like to give a talk about... I want to tell you about...

To begin with,...

введение

аргументов

First of all,...

Besides,... / In addition,... Moreover,... /What is more,... Finally,...

There are many reasons why...

примеры

for example, for instance, such as...

выражение

мнения

In my opinion,...

From my point of view,... To tell the truth,...

To be honest,...

As for me,...

Personally, I...

заключение

Tо sum up, I want to say that...

In conclusion, I’d like to point out that...

Фразы-клише для задания 3

Вступление:

I would like to give a short talk about ... Я хотел бы поговорить о...

Let me start speaking about ... - Позвольте мне начать говорить о ...

Слова-связки:

Actually - на самом деле

That is why - вот почему

Firstly - во-первых

Secondly - во-вторых

Besides - кроме того

On the one hand - с одной стороны

On the other hand - с другой стороны

But - но

Заключение:

In conclusion, I would like to say that ... В заключение я хотел бы сказать, что...

That s all I wanted to say . - Это всё, что я хотел сказать.

Пример задания 3

Task 3. You are going to give a talk about health and beauty. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

  • What you should do to stay beautiful and healthy.
  • Why physical attractiveness is important.
  • What you can do to improve your fitness level.

You have to talk continuously.

  1. I would like to give a short talk about health and beauty.
  2. I think that everyone wants to stay healthy and to be in good shape.
  3. That is why it is important to exercise regularly, to sleep 7-8 hours per day and to stick to a healthy diet.
  4. Besides, people should give up their bad habits and try to avoid stressful situations.
  5. From my point of view physical attractiveness is important for everyone because beautiful people can easily find friends and get well-paid jobs.
  6. They often feel confident and satisfied with their lives.
  7. But one should not forget that inner beauty can be much more important than physical beauty.
  8. Personally, I want to be strong and attractive, that’s why I go to the gym twice a week.
  9. I’ve made my workout a regular part of my week.
  10. In addition, I like jogging and riding a bike.

THE PLACE WHERE I LIVE

I’d like to give a talk about the place where I live. It is really important for me.

To begin with, my city is famous for its short but glorious history. The first plant for building submarines was built here.

As for me the lovely city park, it is my favourite place. I like it so much because it is a quiet place. You can have a rest after a long day at school in it.

Speaking about the time when I leave school, I think that I am likely to go to Moscow to continue studying. There are many universities and also good opportunities for career growth in the capital.

All in all, I firmly believe that Severodvinsk makes my life more interesting and every time I have a chance I will return here to see my relatives and my friends. In conclusion, I would like to say that every person should love their native place and try to make it more beautiful. Thank you for listening.

LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

I’d like to give a talk about foreign languages. I think it is impossible to imagine our life without knowing at least one foreign language.

People learn foreign languages for many reasons. The most important one is communication. Nowadays more and more people travel abroad. The knowledge of a foreign language helps them communicate.

As for me, I have chosen to do the English exam this year because it will be useful for my future career.

Personally, I go for extra English lessons to prepare for my English exam. I sometimes read books or just listen to the songs in English.

All in all, I firmly believe that foreign languages make our life more interesting.

I’d like to give a talk about pets. I think pets make our life more interesting.

To begin with, almost every family has a pet nowadays. Speaking about the reasons, I believe that most people keep animals because they make their lives happier. Also, parents usually buy a pet for their children because they want them to become more responsible.

In my opinion, cats, dogs and parrots are the most popular pets in big cities. They are widespread because all of them can easily live within the apartment.

But it is important for all owners to keep in mind that having an animal is a big responsibility because life of the creature depends on them. They should always remember to feed, walk if necessary and play with a pet.

All in all, I firmly believe that pets make our life more interesting and whenever I have a chance I spend time with my dog. That’s all I wanted to say about pets. Thank you for listening.

INTERNET

To begin with, the Internet is the newest kind of mass media. It has become the most popular source of information and entertainment. If you have the Internet access you may find useful information, watch films or just communicate with people all over the world.

Long distance communication has become easier nowadays thanks to the e – mail.

Surely, there are also disadvantages of the Internet. Sometimes the information from it is not very reliable. It may be harmful for you.

All in all, I firmly believe that the Internet makes our life more interesting and exciting. Every time I have a chance I try to browse the Internet and to search for something interesting. That’s all I wanted to say about the internet. Thank you for listening.

THE INTERNET

I’d like to give a talk about the Internet. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without the Internet nowadays.

To begin with, it serves to inform people of different events, to educate, entertain, and give us any kind of information. Complete and accurate information is very important to get nowadays. So the Internet has become so popular, widespread and the majority of people daily use it.

From my point of view, the Internet can help students in their studies. They can find the book they need without leaving home. So, they don’t need to waste their time going to the library.

But there are some dangers as well. For example, some people get addicted to the Internet and spend all time there.

All in all, I firmly believe that the Internet makes our life easier and every time I have a chance I use the Internet to do my homework or just to have a rest. That’s all I wanted to say about the Internet. Thank you for listening.

HOLIDAYS

I’d like to give a talk about holidays. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without holidays.

To begin with, Russia is famous for its glorious holidays all over the world. We celebrate such public holidays as New Year, Victory Day, Easter and many others.

My favourite public holiday is New Year. I like it because all family celebrates that holiday together at home. New Year is celebrated at night on the 31st of December. After the speech of the President of the Russian Federation most families spend a night walking in the streets or sitting at home.

As for me, I prefer to give presents. Doing it you remember about all the members of your family and try to make them happier

All in all, I firmly believe that holidays make our life more interesting and every time I have a chance I try to spend time with my relatives and my friends on holidays and of course to give them presents.

That’s all I wanted to say about holidays. Thank you for listening.

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS IN RUSSIA

I’d like to give a talk about public holidays in Russia. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without holidays.

To begin with, state or public holidays in Russia include Constitution Day, New Year’s Day, the International Women’s Day, May Day, Victory Day and Independence Day.

As for me, I like New Year most of all because all the family celebrates that holiday together at home. It’s a great opportunity to get closer to each other.

From my point of view, people usually give presents and wish Happy New Year to each other.

Some of them like celebrating this holiday at their friends’ houses or attend fireworks displays in the city. Celebrations for children include a decorated fir tree and Grandfather Frost. He often comes with his granddaughter Snegurochka.

All in all, I firmly believe public holidays make our life more interesting. That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

TRAVELLING

To begin with, most people enjoy travelling because it gives them an opportunity to meet new people and find out interesting historical facts.

From my point of view, the choice of the best season for travelling depends on your likes. For example, if you like going to the seaside you should do it in summer and if you want to go skiing it’s better to do it in winter.

As for me, the ship is the best means of transport because it’s very comfortable. Modern ships have got everything on board to make people feel at home.

All in all, I firmly believe that travelling makes our life more interesting. Every time I have a chance I use the opportunity to travel somewhere. That’s all I wanted to say about travelling.

Thank you for listening.

TRAVELLING

I’d like to give a talk about travelling. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without travelling nowadays.

To begin with, most people enjoy travelling, because it’s a great opportunity to see the world.

From my point of view, people like doing sightseeing and taking photos while travelling. Some of them also like meeting new people and communicating with them.

As for me I would like to go to London to see its sights. I have always dreamed of visiting this city.

All in all, I firmly believe that travelling makes our life more interesting. Every time a have a chance I try to travel to different places. It helps me get to know many new interesting things.

That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

MY CAREER PLANS

I’d like to give a talk about my career plans. I think it is a very important issue for every student.

Speaking about me, I want to be a … It’s an interesting and well – paid job. But it is also difficult because you should be very good both at … and …

From my point of view, these two subjects are important because a true … should know both … and …

In fact, my family (doesn’t) approve my career choice (because they thought that I should become a …).

I think that being … is great and I’m looking forward to it.

All in all, I firmly believe that career plans make our life more purposeful. Every time I have a chance I think about it and try to find out something about my future profession. That’s all I wanted to say about my career. Thank you for listening.

I’d like to give a talk about books. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without books nowadays. But unfortunately books have become less popular nowadays.

To begin with, most modern teenagers don’t read at all. It seems to me, that the main reason for it is a wide choice of social networks and computer games.

As for me, I like reading science fiction books most of all because they have an unpredictable plot and contain thousands of facts about nature.

From my point of view, many people prefer e – books to paper ones because an electronic book is much more convenient than a traditional paper book. It’s easy to use because it is a small device but it contains lots of texts.

All in all, I firmly believe that books make our life more interesting. Every time a have a chance I take a book and try to discover another wonderful world. That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

TELEVISION

I’d like to give a talk about television. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without books nowadays.

To begin with, television plays a big role in our society. A lot of people, and teenagers is not an exception, prefer watching television to reading. It is more comfortable just to watch instead of sitting with the book

As for me, I usually watch TV about seven hours a week. Unfortunately, I don’t have a chance to spend in front of the TV – set more than one hour a day. I have to do my homework and go to extra lessons.

From my point of view, one of the disadvantages of the television is too much information which is not always very reliable.

All in all, I firmly believe that television makes our life more interesting. Every time a have a chance I try to watch some useful TV programmes. That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

MY FREE TIME

I’d like to give a talk about my free time. I think it’s impossible to imagine our life without having some time for relaxation.

Unfortunately, I don’t have much free time. One of the main reasons for this lack is the fact that I study six days a week. So, I have only one day off.

When I have free time I enjoy … .

As for my Sunday afternoons, I spend this time doing my homework for Monday. Sometimes I manage to watch TV, to play computer games or just to listen to music and simply relax. From time to time when the weather is fine I go for a walk.

All in all, I firmly believe free time activities make our life more interesting and exciting. Every time I have a chance I try to do something interesting. That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

I’d like to give a talk about the weather and seasons. I think seasons and weather may seriously affect our life.

To begin with, in every season there are bright and dark sides. But we must be thankful together whatever the weather.

As for me I like … most of all because …

From my point of view, the Earth’s climate has recently changed very much. Winters have become quite warm and snowless and spring comes late enough.

As for the weather forecast, I don’t always trust it because the weather can be very changeable and unpredictable. When you want to enjoy sunny weather and blue sky there are clouds everywhere.

All in all, I firmly believe that the weather can easily change our plans, but everyone hopes the weather will be fine.

I must confess that every season is beautiful and attractive in its own way. And as one of the famous poets says, “I see no reason to speak in prize of any season”.

That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

KEEPING FIT

I’d like to give a talk about keeping fit. I think it is a very important issue nowadays.

To begin with, the polluted and unhealthy world of today makes people realize the importance of keeping fit.

As for me, I do sport regularly. I go to the swimming pool twice a week. This helps me feel fit and healthy.

From my point of view, most of teenagers prefer running or cycling. They often do it to keep fit.

All in all, I firmly believe that keeping fit makes our life more interesting. Every time I have a chance I go to the gym or to the swimming pool. That’s all I wanted to say about keeping fit.

Thank you for listening.

I’d like to give a talk about my school. I think school is a very important part of everybody’s life.

As for me, I can’t imagine my life without my school.

To begin with, I like our school canteen. I can have a snack there when I have free time during the breaks.

As for me the most difficult weekday, it is … because …

From my point of view, it would be better to change our school timetable. It would give us an opportunity to have an extra day off. If we didn’t have any lessons on Saturdays we would have a chance to have a rest

All in all, I firmly believe that school makes our life more interesting and exciting. I take prt in all extra-curricular activities at my school. That’s all I wanted to say about my school. Thank you for listening.

MY SCHOOL

I’d like to give a talk about my school. . I think school is a very important part of everybody’s life.

To begin with, my school day usually starts at a quarter past eight. I usually have six lessons every day. So my classes finish at two p.m. After every lesson I have a break. During this time I can have a snack at our school canteen or just have a little rest.

As for my favourite subject it is … because…

I like my … most of all.

All in all, I firmly believe that school makes our life brighter. I always try to do my best at school. That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

MY SCHOOL HOMEWORK

I’d like to give a talk about my school homework. I think it is impossible to imagine learning at school without it.

To begin with, every day I spend much time enough doing my homework.

As for me, I usually start with … . I do it because … .

From my point of view, schoolchildren should be given less homework. In such way they will be able to prepare for the lessons better.

All in all, I firmly believe that school homework makes our life busier. Every time a have a chance I try to do my homework in advance. In this way I manage to save time during the school week. That’s all I wanted to say. Thank you for listening.

информационно коммуникативную - осуществляет прием и передачу информации регулятивно-коммуникативную - регулирует поведение человека при его общении - как воздействовать на человека: выразить просьбу, посоветовать, одобрить, запретить, и. т. д. аффективно-коммуникативную, детерминирующую эмоциональные сферы человека - ценностно-ориентированную: выразить чувства. Организуя устно-речевое общение на уроке, следует иметь в виду, что в структуре говорения выделяются три фазы: .
1.Мотивационно-побудительная. Во время переработки поступающей информации у слушателя формируется своя коммуникативная задача, свое речевое умение и появляется замысел высказывания.
2.Аналитико-синтетическая:В этой фазе осуществляется реализация замысла высказывания, структурное оформление, обусловленное коммуникативной задачей и ситуацией общения. Происходит выбор языковых средств, сопоставление и сочетание слов (реализация парадигматических и синтагматических связей слова: достраивание, конструирование, трансформирование, комбинирование из того, что хранится в памяти).
3.Контрольно-исполнительская: На этом этапе осуществляется проговаривание или внешнее оформление высказывания, логическое построение в соответствии с замыслом, придание эмоционально-выразительной окрашенности речи.
В структуре монологического высказывания выделяют:
1.Уровень предложения (фразы), где мысль называется, но не раскрывается
2.Уровень сверхфразового единства, где мысль раскрывается
3.Уровень развернутого текста, в который включаются сочетания коммуникативных типов речи.
4.Уровень свободной речи, где реализуется умение говорить в неподготовленной ситуации.
При обучении монологическому высказыванию следует иметь в виду различные типы монологических высказываний:
Монолог-описание - способ изложения мыслей, предполагающий характеристику предмета, явления, который осуществляется путем перечисления их качеств, признаков, особенностей. Монолог-сообщение (повествование, рассказ)- информация о развивающихся событиях, действиях и состояниях
Монолог-рассуждение - тип речи, который характеризуется особыми логическими отношениями между входящими в его состав суждениями, образующими умозаключение.
При этом у учащихся проявляются разные уровни сформированности речи. Такие как:
а) репродуктивный уровень, не предполагающий самостоятельности и творчества учащихся как в выборе языковых средств так и в определении содержания высказывания, оно дается извне
б) репродуктивно-продуктивный уровень, предполагающий элемент творчества и самостоятельности, проявляющийся в варьироавнии языкового материала, использование его в новой ситуации, в изменении последовательности и композиции изложения
в) продуктивный уровень, характеризующий самостоятельностью отбора и построения высказывания, а также творческим подходом в его оформлении, наличие оценки со стороны говорящего.
При обучении монологической речи исполъзуются два способа: дедуктивный и индуктивный. Дедуктивный предполагает работу над текстом – образцом, а индуктивный способ предполагает развертывание высказывания от предложения к монологу .
Из опыта, накопленного педагогами, следует, что работа над указанными выше типами монологического высказывания требует использование соответствующих типов упражнений, направленных на обучение
а) высказыванию на уровне одного предложения
Такими упражнениями могут быть:
-соединить простые предложения рассказа в сложные
-закончить высказывание, используя предложенные варианты
-подобрать к данным тезисам соответствующие аргументы
б) элементарному высказыванию - сверхфразовому единству.
Упражнения, обучающие этому уровню:
-объясни причину
-докажи, что
-выбери картину и аргументируй свой выбор
-выскажи мнение о событиях и его участниках
Здесь необходимо формировать умение логически и последовательно комбинировать предложения, объединяя их в высказывание о предмете по данной теме, в данной ситуации.
в) владению свободной речи:
-композиции на доске, фланелеграфе, кодоскопе, (позволяющие варьировать ситуации)
-заголовки, - лозунги,- афоризмы, - поговорки
-символика, -пиктограммы, цвет, диаграммы, схемы, графическая изобразительная наглядность.
Данные опоры обеспечивают мотивацию высказывания, развивают творческие способности и воображение учащихся.


38) УПРАЖНЕНИЯ НА РАЗВИТИЕ ТАКТИЛЬНО_КИНЕСТЕТИЧЕСКИХ ОЩУЩЕНИЙ (Берите не все упражнения, а те которые понравились)
Игры упражнения
для развития тактильно-кинестетической чувствительности
«Поздоровайся с водичкой»
(дети различными способами дотрагиваются до воды)
«Пальчики здороваются с водичкой»:
- дотронуться до воды поочередно каждым пальцем правой и левой руки, после – двумя руками одновременно (сначала только указательными, потом – средними, затем – безымянными, большими и, наконец, мизинчиками), затем всеми пальцами одновременно;
- легко и с напряжением (поочередно) сжимать кулачки в воде и разжимать их, как будто удерживая в них воду;
- потирать в воде пальчиками поочередно (указательными, средними и т.д.), словно «перетирать» что-то;
- быстро перебирать пальчиками руки по поверхности воды, выполняя «бегущие» движения; по воде могут «бегать» сначала пальчики правой, затем левой руки, а потом пальчики обеих рук одновременно.
По водичке могут «бегать» указательные и средние пальцы правой и левой руки:
Жил на свете человек –
Скрюченные ножки,
И гулял он целый век
По скрюченной дорожке.
Вот бегут босые ножки
Прямо к речке по дорожке.
По поверхности воды «бегают» пальчики обеих рук, а затем они сжимаются в кулачки; кулачки опускаются на дно:
Вышли пальчики гулять.
Раз – два – три – четыре – пять,
В домик спрятались опять.
«Шагать» пальчиками по воде, выполняя мелкие шажки (слегка дотрагиваться до воды подушечками пальцев) и «шагать» по воде, сжав руки в кулачки – большие шаги:
По ровненькой дорожке
Ходили наши ножки,
Ходили наши ножки.
(Выполняются маленькие «шажки».)
По ровненькой дороге,
Прошли большие ноги.
Топ – топ – топ, топ – топ – топ,
Ходили наши ноги!
(Выполняются большие «шаги»
кулачками.)
«Ладошки здороваются с водичкой»:
- дотрагиваться до воды всей ладошкой сначала внутренней, а затем тыльной стороной;
- потирать ладошки в воде в разных направлениях.
«Течет ручеек»:
- взрослый из стаканчика льет водичку в сомкнутые ладошки ребенка, а ребенок старается удержать водичку в ладошках, а затем выпустить ее из рук; ребенок старается держать пальчики сомкнутыми, чтобы водичка сквозь них «не убегала».
«Кулачок – стаканчик»:
- дети делают «стаканчики», смыкая пальцы руки и образуя отверстие внутри, а взрослый из леечки (бутылочки) наливает воду в «стаканчики»; дети наблюдают, как водичка вытекает снизу из рук – «стаканчиков».
«Плывут рыбки»:
- поскользить ребром ладоней по поверхности воды и на глубине, выполняя зигзагообразные и круговые движения, показывая, как плавают рыбки; потом опустить ручки в воду, на самое донышко – «рыбки притаились»:
В чистой голубой водице
Плывет рыбок вереница.
Чешуей златой сверкая,
Кружится, играет стая!
Тишина их манит вниз,
Рыбки, рыбки, спать ложись.
Вот это, представьте себе, - водоем,
Я – рыбка волшебная,
Плаваю в нем.

Покачать запястьями влево и вправо:
Рыбки пляшут в синем море, -
Хорошо им на просторе!
Рыбка плавает в водице,
Рыбке весело играть.
Рыбка, рыбка, озорница,
Мы хотим тебя поймать.
- имитировать руками движения в соответствии с текстом (сжимать и разжимать кулачки, прижимать ладошки к донышку):
Рыбки весело резвятся
В чистой тепленькой воде:
То сожмутся, разожмутся,
То зароются в песке.
«Курочка пьет воду»:
- пальцы сложить в виде клюва; ритмично наклонять кисть руки вниз, в воду, поднимать вверх из воды, имитируя водопой курочки:
Наша курочка гуляла,
Травку свежую щипала
И пила водицу
Прямо из корытца.
«Стирка»:
- на первую строчку – тереть один кулачок о другой, на вторую строчку – движения ладонями вправо – влево, на третью – сжимать-разжимать кулачки, имитировать движения, изображающие развешивание белья:
Мы белье стирали,
В речке полоскали,
Выжали, развесили –
То-то стало весело!
«Дождик, дождик, мороси!»:
Солнце с тучкою опять
В прятки начали играть.
Только солнце спрячется –
Тучка вся расплачется!
Взрослый говорит детям, что тучка плакать начинает – и начинается дождик. Дождик может быть мелким, капельки падают редко, а может лить сильно:
- ударять поочередно пальчиками обеих рук по поверхности воды, изображая падающие дождевые капельки; а когда дождик усиливается, можно ударять по воде сразу всеми пальчиками;
- опускать ручки в воду и поднимать их, наблюдая, как стекают с них капли воды, - «дождик закончился»,
- поднимать руки из воды и разбрызгивать капельки, сжимая и разжимая кулачки.
Кап-кап-кап, кап-кап-кап,
Тучки собираются,
Кап-кап-кап, кап-кап-кап,
Дождик начинается,
Вот на землю капельки,
Капельки упали,
Ручейки, ручейки
Быстро побежали.
Ударяют кончиками пальцев
о поверхность воды
Водят пальчиками по воде,
изображая круги
Кап-кап-кап, кап-кап-кап,
Дождик продолжается,
И никак, и никак
Дождик не кончается.
Капельки устали
Долго танцевать.
Дождик, дождик, перестань.
Отдохнуть немного дай!
Ударяют кончиками пальцев
о поверхность воды
Ручки стряхивают, разбрызгивая
последние капельки
- ловить капельки в ладошки (дети могут сами капать в свои ладошки водичкой, или взрослый может капать водичкой в ладошки детей, изображая дождик):
Дождик, дождик, веселей!
Капай, капай, не жалей!
Дождик, дождик,
Лей, лей, лей,
На меня и на людей!
Дождик, дождик, пуще,
Травка будет гуще!
Дождик, дождик, веселей!
Капай, капай, не жалей!
Только нас не замочи!
Зря в окошко не стучи -
Брызни в поле пуще:
Станет травка гуще!
Дождик, дождик, пуще,
Будет травка гуще.
Дождик, дождик, посильней,
Огород ты наш полей.
«Волны»:
- волны можно изображать, выполняя движения в воде вправо-влево, ныряющие движения вверх-вниз, одной рукой или двумя руками одновременно:
Гонит ветер волны, волны!
Хватит, ветер, полно, полно!
Успокойся, стань потише!
Волны сразу станут ниже!
(Постепенно волны стихают, движения руками становятся менее резкими, более плавными.)
«Плывут лодочки»:
- ладонь руки – вверх, сложить пальчики «лодочкой», плавно двигать кисть по воде вперед-назад – «лодочки плывут»; затем плавно двигать кисть влево - вправо, изображая покачивающиеся движения – «качаем лодочку»:
Долго лодочку качало.
Ветер стих, и лодка встала.
- на первые строчки две ладони соединить лодочкой и выполнять волнообразные движения руками. На слова «паруса подниму» - поднять выпрямленные ладони вверх, затем имитировать движения волн и рыбок:
Две ладошки прижму и по морю поплыву.
Две ладошки, друзья, - это лодочка моя!
Паруса подниму, синим морем поплыву,
А по буйным волнам плывут рыбки тут и там.
- обе ладони поставлены на ребро, большие пальцы прижаты к ладоням, как ковшик:
Лодочка плывет по речке,
Оставляя на воде колечки.
- обе ладони поставлены на ребро, мизинцы прижаты, большие пальцы подняты вверх:
Пароход без колес!
Вот так чудо – пароход!
Прямо по морю пошел!
«Уточки кря-кря»:
- сложить три пальчика вместе (указательный, средний и большой), изображая клюв уточки. Движения «уточек» сопровождаются рифмованным текстом.
Сначала «уточки» плывут по воде (качающиеся движения на поверхности воды), потом ныряют и выныривают (опускаются ручки на глубину и всплывают наверх), гребут лапками (перебирать пальчиками по воде, изображая утиные лапки):
На волнах качаясь,
Уточка плывет,
То нырнет, то вынырнет,
Лапками гребет.

Здесь вы найдете примерные монологи для всех заданий ОГЭ по английскому языку. Напоминаю, что монологическое высказывание является третьим и заключительным заданием устной части экзамена.

Монологи составлены в соответствии с открытой базой Федерального института педагогических измерений (Фипи), раскрыв все темы строго по их плану.

1 Монолог “Keeping fit”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about
keeping fit. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes. Remember to say:
· why a healthy lifestyle is more popular nowadays;
· what you do to keep fit;
· what sports activities are popular with teenagers in your region.

Примерный ответ
Well, now I’m going to give a talk about keeping fit and healthy lifestyle.

Healthy lifestyle is becoming more and more popular nowadays. There is a number of reasons for that but the most important reason is that people live under the press of different problems, such as social, ecological, economic and others. A person should be strong and healthy in order to overcome all difficulties. Healthy lifestyle helps people do that.

As for me, I try to keep fit in different ways. First of all, I do my morning exercises every day. In addition to it, I go to the swimming pool once or sometimes twice a week. Also, I stay away from bad habits, because I’m convinced that cigarettes, alcohol and drugs destroy both body and brain.

Well, as to other teenagers of my region, I should say that they are interested in different sports activities. They often play football and other active games on sports grounds, go to gyms and swimming pools. Besides, more and more young men become interested in martial arts, such as karate, boxing, kickboxing, judo and so on.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasise the fact that healthy lifestyle is a “must” for modern people

2 Монолог “My school”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about your school. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes. Remember to say:
· what you like most about your school;
· what weekday you find the most difficult, and why;
· what you would like to change in your school life.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ

I like my school very much, but it is my classmates that I like best of all. We are all good friends and get on well with each other. We spend much time together doing sports, playing active games and so on.

As for weekdays, I find Monday the most difficult one because we have six lessons on this day, including Mathematics and Physics. Frankly speaking, I’m not good at these subjects, and I don’t enjoy these lessons.

In my opinion, much can be changed and improved in my school. For example, PE lessons. I’d like them be more diverse. As a rule, we play volleyball and basketball at the lessons, or simply on the stadium. It would be better if we had a chance to work out with weights and play games that are more interesting .

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasise the fact that school education is very important for teenagers and should help them build character and develop mind.

Задание ( вариант 2)
You are going to give a talk about your school. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· what your typical school day is like;
· what your favourite subject is, and why;
· what you like most about your school.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, now I’m going to give a talk about my school.

To begin with, I’d like to say that my shool is one of the biggest schools in my city, where more than one thousand pupils get their education.

As far as my typical school day concerned, I should say it is very busy. It usually starts at 8 o’clock in the morning and comes to an end at 2 or 3 o’clock in the afternoon. Every day we have 6 and sometimes 7 lessons. We also have breaks, but they are not very long.

As I have just mentioned, my typical school day involves a number of lessons. Russian, Literature, and Mathematics are the most frequent ones. As a rule, we do a lot of work at these lessons: learn rules, do exercises and tests, write essays, make reports, and so on.

My favourite subject is English. I have been learning it since the 2nd form and I hope to relate my life to it. Chances are good that I will be an interpreter. If not, I can always go to school and be an English teacher.

I like a lot in my school but it is my classmates that I like most. We are all good friends and get on well with each other. We spend much time together doing sports, playing active games, going to the cinema.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasis the fact that school education is very important for teenagers and should help them build character and develop mind.

3 Монолог “The place where I live”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about the place where you live. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· what your city, town or village is famous for;
· what your favourite place in your city, town or village is, and why you like it;
· whether you are going to stay in your city, town or village after leaving school or move to another place, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ ( на примере г . Кемерово )
Well, I am going to give a talk about my city.

To begin with, I’d like to say that the name of my city is Kemerovo. This is the capital of Kuzbass, the main coal region of Siberia.

In the first place, Kemerovo is famous for its coal producers and chemical industry. Coal mined here is consumed in this country and exported abroad. In addition to coal, different chemicals are produced here. THe products of a gigantic plant Azot are in great demand all over the country.

As to me, I like my city very much, because it has lots of beautiful places where you can rest and relax. The embankment of the river Tom is my favourite place in Kemerovo. Here you can sit quietly on the banks and admire wondefurl nature. The embankment is also a good place where you can walk alone or with your friends.

Frankly speaking, I haven’t yet decided what to do after leaving school. It depends on many factors. More likely than not, I will stay in my city, because I have all the opportunities to get good education here. I just have no reason of moving to another region. But as the saying is, time will tell.

In conclusion, I’d like to invite everyone to visit Kemerovo and enjoy this city.

4 Монолог “Foreign languages”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about foreign languages. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· why lots of people learn foreign languages nowadays;
· why you have chosen to do the English exam this year;
· what you did to prepare for your English exam.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
To begin with, I’d like to say that more and more people learn foreign languages nowadays. They do it for a number of reasons. In the first place, people want to understand citizens of other countries and to be understood by them. In addition to it, travelling has become easier, and the Russians have a variety of opportunities for going abroad. If you are fluent in a foreign language, you feel more confident.

It goes without saying that English is established as the most important and popular language. As for me, I have been learning English for 5 years. And this year I have chosen to do the English exam. I regard this exam as a chance to test my language skills. I have always wanted to know my real speaking skills and find out my strengths and weaknesses.

I did much work to prepare for my English exam. First of all, I revised grammar. I learned a lot of rules and consolidated them in doing exercises. In addition to it, I read texts of various genres to enlarge my vocabulary. I also listened to a number of radio programmes and podcasts to make my listening better. And I also made efforts to improve my speaking. I used every chance to speak English at the lessons and at home.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasize the fact that English is in great demand these days, so I recommend everybody to start learning it as soon as possible and commit to it.

5 Монолог “Pets”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about pets. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· why people keep pets;
· what pets are most popular in big cities;
· whether having pets is a big responsibility, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, I am going to give a talk about pets.

To begin with, I’d like to say that nowadays more and more people keep pets in their houses: cats, dogs, parrots, hamsters, guinea pigs, and so on. They do it for a number of reasons. In the first place, people seek to make friends, and pets are a kind of friends they can make fast and easily. Besides, pets give positive emotions, that’s why people like to keep them. If you are under stress, you can just stroke your cat and feel somewhat relieved.

As to the most popular pets in big cities, I should say it depends. If you live in a big city, a cat or a small dog would be the best option. Firstly, they don’t need extensive space to live on. Secondly, you don’t have to spend a lot of money on buying pet food. If you live in the country, you can choose whatever you want. There is always plenty of room and food for any pet here.

Anyway, having pets is a big responsibility. Pets are animate objects, and if you don’t take good care of them, they may fall sick and even die.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasise the fact that pets play an important part in our life and we should be aware of both pluses and minuses of keeping them.

6 Монолог “The Internet”

Задание

Remember to say:
· why today’s teenagers use the Internet so much;
· how the Internet makes long-distance communication easier;
· what dangers teenagers can face when they use the Internet.
You have to talk continuously.

Задание ( вариант 2)
You are going to give a talk about the Internet. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· why using the Internet is so popular;
· how the Internet can help students in their studies;
· whether the Internet can be dangerous, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
To begin with, I’d like to say that we live in the world of modern technologies. We are surrounded by lots of sophisticated gadgets: smartphones, iPhones, notebooks, netbooks, laptops. They are very useful because they have practically unlimited functionality. But it is the connection to the Internet that makes them useful to the max.

Today the Internet is exceedingly popular and used very much, especially by teenagers. They do it for a number of reasons. Firsty, they create their profiles on different social nets such as vkontakte, odnoklassniki, facebook, instagram and others. Young people like communicating with each other, and the social nets give them this opportunity. Secondly, the Internet is a depot of innumerable information, so teenagers use the internet as a source of answers for various questions. So, the Internet helps students in their studies. Whether they need to make a report or prepare for a test, they launch a browser, type in the request and get lots of pages according to the request.

Besides, the Internet makes long-distance communication easier. There are special programs for communication of this kind. One of them is Skype, which is sure to be the most popular program. You can see and hear the person whom you are talking to.

Frankly speaking, the Internet is not as safe as you wish it were. Firstly, the spread of information is uncontrolled on the Internet, so teenagers often run into dangerous pages containing information about selling drugs or committing a suicide. I strongly believe that this information must be banned.

In conlcusion I’d like to say that if you follow the safety rules when using the Internet you are not endangered, and you can use the Internet to your advantage as much as possible.

7 Монолог “Holidays”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about holidays. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· what holidays are most popular in your country;
· what your favourite holiday is and how you celebrate it;
· if you prefer to give presents or to get presents, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Задание ( вариант 2)
You are going to give a talk about public holidays in Russia. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· what public holidays are celebrated in Russia;
· what your favourite public holiday is, and why you like it;
· how your favourite public holiday is celebrated in your city, town or village.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, now I’m going to talk about holidays.

To begin with, holidays play an important part in our life. Holidays give us an opportunity to rest and relax, they also improve our mood and make us happier.

Our country has a number of (public) holidays. The most popular are New Year, the 8th of March (the women’s day), Spring and Labour Day, Victory Day, Russia Day, and others. All these holidays are very important for every citizen of the Russian Federation.

My favorite (public) holiday is New Year because this is a special occasion. It is not only an opportunity to relax but also to think about how you lived the past year and make plans for the next one. In addition to it, New Year is a reunion for the whole family of ours, so we always look forward to it.

My family established its own way of celebrating New Year. In the evening we visit our best friends who live next door and have some time together. Then, at midnight, we come back home and have our celebratory meal. We usually watch TV shows, listen to music, fool around, and, of course, give each other presents.

As for me, I like both giving presents and getting them. Both actions are very enjoying. But honestly speaking, I like getting presents more because now I don’t have enough money for giving them.

Staying at home with your family is not the only way to celebrate New Year. You can visit city celebrations which include fairs, contests, concerts, and fireworks. The culmination of the New Year celebration in our city is setting up fireworks. It is just awesome!

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasise the fact that every holiday is a great time, and I wish there were as many holidays as possible.

8 Монолог “Travelling”

Задание

Remember to say:
· why most people like travelling;
· which season is the best for travelling in your opinion;
· what means of transport is the best, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Задание ( вариант 2)
You are going to give a talk about travelling. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· why most people enjoy travelling;
· what people like doing while travelling;
· what place you would like to go to, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Nowadays, people have a great variety to rest and relax: going to the cinema, playing sports, and so on. But the most popular option remains travelling.

People like travelling for a number of reasons. Firstly, travelling is a good way to focus away from work and study and, so to say, to recharge batteries. I mean people can replenish their inner supplies of energy and refresh emotions. Secondly, travelling is a good way to broaden the mind and gain knowledge. If you go to a foreign country, you can learn its customs and traditions, see the sights, make friends with local citizens.

While travelling, people like to do different things. It depends upon the place and purpose of your visit. If you travel to a resort town, you usually swim in the sea and bake in the sun. If you travel on business, you’re supposed to establish contacts, carry on talks, making contracts, and so on. If you travel for educational reasons, you attend lessons, go on excursions, gain knowledge and develop your skills.

In my opinion, summer is the best season for travelling. Most adults are on leave in this period and children have holidays, that’s why summer is the optimal time when you can start on a journey.

As to means of transport, each one has its pluses and minuses. If you travel by train, you can admire beautiful landscapes and you feel safe. But it takes more time to get to the destination. Travelling by plane saves time but deprives you the chance to enjoy the nature outside, and what is more, fills you with misgivings about the flight.

As to me, I have already travelled to many places, but my dream is to visit Tokyo. This is the place I would like to go to because it is one of the world leaders in business, culture, science and technology. Besides, I plan to learn Japanese in the future, so, visiting Japan can help me to do that.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasize the fact that travelling plays an important part in our life and everybody should travel as much as possible.

9 Монолог “Career plans”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about your career plans. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· what job you want to do in the future;
· what two subjects you think are the most important for your future job, and why;
· whether your family approve of your career choice or not.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
All people have to work in order to make a living. It is very important that a person has a job according to his or her abilities and wishes.

As for me, I’d like to be an interpreter in the future. I like foreign languages very much, and, frankly speaking, I’m very good at them. Nowadays, I do my best to learn English and Spanish because they are the languages that are widely spoken and popular with lots of people.

I think that English and Geography are the most important subjects for my future job. They are two subjects that help me learn much about other countries, their customs and traditions. English and Geography also help me understand native people of other countries, respect their culture and communicate with them in the most effective way.

All the members of my family approve my career choice because they strongly believe that interpreting is an exciting and well-paid job. Frankly speaking, my family just want me to be happy and they support any decision of mine.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasize the fact that every teenager shouldn’t procrastinate in deciding about his or her job because a successful career requires much time and efforts.

10 Монолог “Books”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about books. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· whether reading is still popular with teenagers, and why, or why not;
· what kind of books you like reading;
· why many people prefer e-books to paper books.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, I am going to give a talk about books.

To begin with, I’d like to say that there are a lot of ways to spend free time: doing sports, watching TV, going to the cinema, playing games, and so on. And, of course, you can just read a book.

Frankly speaking, reading books is losing its popularity with teenagers making way for more exciting activities, such as watching blockbasters in 3-D, playing computer games, social networking, arranging parties. If a teenager has to choose between reading a book and playing a brand new computer game, he or she will definitly show preference for the game. Modern games excel books in all aspects. Firstly, modern games make a tremendous visual impact. The game world looks extremely realistic. Secondly, when playing a game, you are not an outsider. You are an active insider participating in everything that happens in the game world.

As for me, I have to confess that I am not only a gamer, but also a regular reader. Yes, I like reading very much! Science fiction is my favourite kind of literature because it gives a different view of our reality. It doesn’t present our world as it is but as it could be. I think that science fiction is much deeper than, say, detective stories. The problems science fiction deals with are more global and serious.

If you take a more closer look at reading people, you will notice than they usualy read e-books. There is a number of reasons why many people prefer e-books to paper books. The main reason is that you can download unlimited e-books for free from the Internet. In addition to it, e-books are much comfortable to read. There is a variety of devices that can open e-books: computers, tablets, smartphones.

In conclusion, I’d like to say that modern world is full of exciting things like sports, TV, parties and so on. Nevertheless, books shouldn’t be forgotten.

11 Монолог “School homework”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about your school homework. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· how long it takes you to do your homework;
· what subject you usually start with, and why;
· whether schoolchildren should be given more or less homework, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ

Well, I am going to give a talk about my school homework.

To begin with, I’d like to say that school homework is an essential part of school education. Almost everyone who goes to school is given hometasks.

As for me, duration of doing my homework depends on many factors. For example, our teachers of Literature and History are in the habit of giving a lot of homework, which involves reading many pages of textbooks, writing synopses, making presentations, and so on. If you are not ready with all this stuff, you get a bad mark. As I don’t want to get bad marks, I have to spend long hours to prepare for the lessons. It may take me 3 or even 4 hours to finish the school homework. But to tell the truth, there are teachers who spare pupils’ time and don’t give much work. They organize their lessons so that there is little left for home.

As to sequence of subjects, I usually start with Literature because this is the most voluminous subject including many works of fiction, critique, philosophy, and the like. I prefer to get rid of the most boring subject in the first place and then start doing something that is more interesting.

I strongly believe that schoolchildren should be given less homework. I don’t understand teachers who give their pupils too much homework and are sure that they do them good. Teachers should know that our brain can effectively process a limited amount of information. The rest of information vanishes into thin air. If you keep trying to remember everything you are given by teachers, you will most likely go crazy.

In conclusion, I’d like to appeal to teachers and make them remember their own school life. Teachers schould never forget that they were pupils in the past and, like today’s young people, had difficulties with the homework.

12 Монолог “TV”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about TV. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· whether watching TV is still a popular pastime with teenagers, and why, or why not;
· how many hours a week you watch TV;
· what you dislike most about TV.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, I am going to give a talk about TV.

To begin with, I’d like to say that TV is one of the greatest enventions of all times. It is impossible to imagine days when people lived without TV.

In my opinion, watching TV is losing its popularity with teenagers. The reason is that teenagers prefer the Internet to TV. Not long ago, TV used to be the main source of information and entertainment. It is no longer the case. Now, if you want to know what is happening in the world, you launch a browser, do some clicks and get innumerable quantity of information. If you want to watch something entertaining, you don’t need TV. There are lots of youtube channels providing clips, shows, interviews with celebrities, and the like. You can start watching a video, pause it for any time and then start again. You can’t do the same trick with television.

As for me, I don’t watch TV very often. I usually do it when new episodes of my favourite serials appear. So, I watch TV approximately 3 of 4 hours a week. Sometimes it happens that there are no new episodes of my favourite serials, so I spend no time at all.

There are a lot of things I dislike about TV. But endless blocks of commercials drive me really crazy! It goes without saying that advertising gives money for producing new content, but there should be some limits to advertising.

In conclusion, I’d like to acknowledge great importance of television, but at the same time, I’d like to state the fact that TV gradually abandons its absolute position making way for the Internet.

13 Монолог “Free time”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about your free time. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· whether you have a lot of free time, and why, or why not;
· what you enjoy doing in your free time;
· what your Sunday afternoons are like.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, I am going to give a talk about my free time.

To begin with, I’d like to say that people have to work more and more in the modern world to make a career, earn a living, and become successful. This also holds true for teenagers, because they have to study a lot. So, both adults and teenagers don’t have much free time.

As for me, I don’t have much free time either, because I am faced with a number of important exams this year. As I don’t want to fail them, I make every effort to learn the necessary material. I read a lot of textbooks and additional articles, do innumerable exercises, attend preparation courses, and so on.

In spite of the fact that I have to work a lot, I try to find some time for recreation and fun. Frankly speaking, I enjoy doing many things in my free time. I like to take walks, come to see my friends, watch TV, surf the Internet, and so on. My favourite pastime is going to a swimming pool. I am keen on having a healthy lifestyle, and swimming helps me to keep fit.

As to my Sunday afternoons, I should confess that they are just for doing nothing active. I usually take my tablet, sink into the sofa, and watch videos on youtube or communicate in social nets. Sunday afternoons are the period when I don’t overload myself with activities, because I need to collect my strength for Monday, which is my busiest weekday.

In conclusion, I’d like to say that it is very important to not only have free time but also give it to your hobbies and interests.

14 Монолог “Weather and seasons”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about weather and seasons. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· which of the four seasons you like most, and why;
· how the Earth’s climate has changed recently;
· whether you trust the weather forecast, and why.
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, I am going to give a talk about weather and seasons.

To begin with, I’d like to say that there are four seasons in a year: winter, spring, summer, and autumn.

As for me, I like summer most of all, because this is the period when we have vacations. And vacations mean freedom. Absolutely! We have no need to get up early and be in a hurry to leave for school. It is not necessary to spend long hours doing school homework. The only thing we have to do in summer is relaxing to the max. In addition to it, the weather is awesome in summer! As a rule, it is warm and sunny.

By the way, the Earth’s climate has changed recently. If you take a closer look at what’s happening in the world, you see natural phenomena that never took place before. Melting arctic ice is one of numerous examples. It gradually fills the ocean with huge amounts of additional water that makes the water level higher and causes ecological disasters. In addition to it, mass media often give information about disastrous hurricanes and severe droughts that occur in unexpected time and place.

As to the weather forecast, I don’t trust it if it is given for the longer period of time. I don’t believe that man can predict what is going to be in a week or fortnight. Nevertheless, I think that the weather forecast for one or two days is most likely to be correct, and you should trust it.

In conclusion, I’d like to say that weather is an interesting subject, which is worth studying and paying attention to.

15 Монолог “Photography”

Задание
You are going to give a talk about photography. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and speak for not more than 2 minutes.
Remember to say:
· why people like taking pictures
· why taking photos is more popular today than it was in the past
· what the best photo you have ever taken is
You have to talk continuously.

Примерный ответ
Well, I am going to give a talk about photography.

To begin with, I’d like to say that people have always wanted beautiful moments of life to last forever. Photography helps them to make it happen.

People like taking pictures for a number of reasons. As I have just mentioned, people want to save beautiful moments of life forever. For example, while visiting an exotic country, you see lots of things that don’t exist in your own area. You never see a coconut tree in Siberia and heaps of snow somewhere in the south. Why not to take a picture? In addition to it, people take pictures not only for fun but also for fixing details of an occurrence. It is often the case when pictures help to investigate a crime.

It is really a fact that taking photos is more popular today than it was in the past. The main reason is that taking photos has become much easier today. You just take a smartphone, do a click and that’s it. It has also become easier to share photos with friends. You can upload it
on your profile in a social net and let everyone see it.

As for me, I like taking photos very much. Frankly speaking, I have many good photos, but the best one was taken last year in the Altai Mountains. My friends and I effected an ascent of a mountain and took a picture on the very top of it. The picture is just awesome! When I look at it, I admire wonderful nature and remember my friends.

In conclusion, I’d like to say that taking pictures is a never-ending hobby, which will carry away more and more people.